Serum is basically the solute and fluid component of blood that does not play any role in clotting process. It can be defined as a fluid composed of all components that do not play a role of clotting. Serum contains all components not present in blood, and all exogenous substances not used by the body. This includes many proteins that are used by the body in the production of new blood cells. Some of the constituents present in serum are: albumin, bovine globulin, globulins, leukotriene derivatives (e.g.

serum

Albumin is one of the protein complexes present in serum that is found to increase the platelet-rich plasma volume and inhibit platelet polymerization. The increase in platelet-rich plasma volume can prevent blood clot formation. The albumin component also has been shown to stimulate production of thrombin and fibrinolytic enzymes.

Glutulins are another component present in serum. Glutulins are polysaccharides present in the blood that facilitate exchange of hemoglobin for monoglobin. Glutulins are transported by the blood from the liver to different organs and tissues. Glutulins can enhance blood platelet activity. They have also been shown to inhibit blood coagulation. Glutulins have been found to decrease platelet aggregation, decrease the risk of bleeding, and lower the blood pressure. Glutulins have also been found to lower the level of platelet-activating factors.

Hyaluronic Acid is present in serum in two forms: glycosylated form and unglycosylated form. Hyaluronidase is a type of enzyme that breaks down Hyaluronic Acid; therefore, it gets broken down into its component parts. The glycosylated form of Hyaluronic Acid has been shown to improve wound healing and reduce swelling.

Antigens are also present in serum. These components are responsible for binding with blood platelets and inhibiting their ability to clot. Some of the antigens that are present in serum are: human platelet-derived or bovine globulins, interferon gamma, eosinophils, macrophage-like antigen, antibodies (monoclonal antibodies), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. {MCP-1). Some of these antigens are not required by the human body and are present in plasma only. They can be present in serum in higher concentration than that in human blood; hence they are termed as antigens.

The chemical composition of serum also differs according to the source of it. Some of the sources of serum include the following: plasma (viscous) fluid, cryoprecipitated animal tissue, vitreous humor, serum obtained from a catheter, serum obtained through the needle, and plasma obtained by immunoelectomy.

Serum can also contain drugs and other chemical components that can affect the blood sugar, such as glucose, phenylalanine, corticosteroids, epinephrine, and certain cholesterol medications. In addition, serum contains a number of nutrients and vitamins, including magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium.

Serum contains many substances that are necessary for normal functioning of the body, but there are also some substances that are harmful to the health of the body. These substances can include some antibiotics and some steroids. Some of these substances that can affect the body are: catecholamines, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prostaglandins. These chemicals are present in serum at a higher concentration than that in blood.

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